Cultural Globalization >>
Globalization and the Media >>
The Global Public Sphere >>
Media Power >>
Elites >>
Media Regulation and Control >>
Image control, PR and spin >>
Gender, media and politics >>
Journalists >>
Global Journalism and Foreign Correspondents >>
Global and Other Crisis Reporting >>

Journalism, Media Representation and Cultural Diversity >>
Journalists and Technological Change >>
Publics and Audiences >>
Activists >>
Media and War >>

Surveillance, security forces and the media >>
Infotainment - Politics and Popular culture >>
Reality TV >>
Political Satire >>
Political Drama >>
Music >>
Celebrities, Media Spectacle, charitainment >>
Science Fiction/Fantasy and Politics >>
Mediatization >>
Media Freedom >>



There is no shortage of good, comprehensive works on globalization. Here are some good places to start.

Axford, B. (2013) Theories of Globalization. Cambridge: Polity.

Martell, L. (2010) The Sociology of Globalization. Cambridge: Polity.

A bigger challenge - well worth the effort - is Manuel Castells’ magisterial trilogy The Information Age: Economy, Society and Culture (Wiley, 2009-11).



Cultural Globalization

Appadurai, A. (1996/2003) Modernity at Large: Cultural Dimensions of Globalization. University of Minnesota Press.

Hopper, P. (2007) Understanding Cultural Globalization. Cambridge: Polity.

Pieterse, J.N. (2003) Globalization and Culture. Global Melange. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.


Globalization and the Media

Chakravartty, P. & Downing, J. (2010) ‘Media, technology, and the global financial crisis’, International Journal of Communication 4: 693-695.

Chopra, R. & Gajjala, R. eds. (2011) Global Media, Culture and Identity. Theory, Cases, and Approaches. New York & London: Routlege. An interdisciplinary collection of essays and case studies examining how cultural identities can be shaped by media, but also how they can influence the political economy of global media. The anthology takes a critical look at media globalization.

Cohen, Akiba, ed. (2013) Foreign News on Television. Where in the World is the Global Village? New York and London: Peter Lang.

Curtin, M. (2005) ‘Murdoch’s Dilemma, or ‘What’s the price of TV in China?’”, Media, Culture & Society 27(2): 155-75.

Flew, T. (2007) Understanding Global Media. Palgrave.

Hafez, K. (2007) The Myth of Media Globalzation. Cambridge: Polity.

Herman, E. & McChesney, R. (2001) Global Media: the New Missionaries of Global Capitalism. Bloomsbury.

Lule, J. (2012) Globalization and Media. Global Village of Babel. Rowman & Littlefield.

McPhail, T. (2014) Global Communication. Theories, Stakeholders, and Trends. Wiley-Blackwell.

Mjos, O. (2010) Media Globalization and Discovery Channel Networks. London: Routledge.

Reese, S. (2008) ‘Theorizing a globalized journalism’, in Loffelholz, M. & Weaver, D., eds. Global Journalism Research. Oxford: Blackwell.

Robertson, A. (2015) Global News: Reporting Conflicts and Cosmopolitanism. New York and London: Peter Lang. 

Robertson, A. (2010) Mediated Cosmopolitanism: the world of television news. Cambridge: Polity. 

Seeck, H. & Rantanen, T. (2015) ‘Media events, spectacles and risky globalization: a critical review and possible avenues for future research’, Media, Culture & Society 37(2): 163-179. The authors argue that, in the context of global risk society and unplanned events, and with changes in the production of news, researchers need to rethink their approach to the study of the mediation of events.

Tomlinson, J. (1999) Globalization and Culture. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.


The Global Public Sphere

The notion of the public sphere is a communicating door between political science and media studies. While originally envisaged as operating at the national level, a number of authors have explored this idea by inserting the adjective ‘global’ or ‘transnational’. See for example:


Castells, M. (2008) ‘The new public sphere: global civil society, communication networks and global governance’, Annals of the American Academy of Political Social Science 616(1): 78-93.

Fraser, N. et al. (2014) Transnationalizing the Public Sphere. Cambridge: Polity.

Volkmer, I. (2014) The Global Public Sphere: Public Communication in the Age of Reflexive Globalization. Cambridge: Polity.


Media Power

Castells, M. (2009) Communication Power. Oxford University Press.

Couldry, N. (2000) The Place of Media Power. Pilgrims and Witnesses of the Media Age. Routledge.

Couldry, N. & Curran, J. (2003) Contesting Media Power. Rowan & Littlefield.

Freedman, D. (2014) The Contradictions of Media Power. Bloomsbury Academic.

Graber, D. (2010) Media Power in Politics, 6th edition. QC Press. A collection of essays focussing on US politics and media, but useful in its focus on the relationship between political actors and journalists, and the fact that it has been regularly revised over a 30-year period.

McCullagh, Ciaran (2002) Media Power. A sociological introduction. Palgrave.

McNair, B. (2006) Cultural Chaos: Journalism, News and Power in a Globalized World. London: Routledge.




Chakravartty, P. & Roy, S. (2015) ‘Mr. Modi Goes to Delhi: Mediated Populism and the 2014 Indian Elections’, Television & New Media  16(4): 311-322. Abstract:While elections across the globe today are mediated in the sense of being pervaded by the ambient presence and explicit deployments of varied media, the Indian national elections of 2014 showcase a specific logic of mediated populism that has become globally influential of late. To understand this logic, the authors examine the contexts and lineages of the present moment of mediated populism, i.e. the wider political-economic dynamics and contexts that shape and embed the Modi phenomenon. We focus on the changing relationship between privatized media across platforms, political elites and conceptions/ productions of “the people” that these particular political historical dynamics have effected and enabled.’

Jaffrelot, C. (2015) ‘Narenda Modi and the Power of Television in Gujarat’, Television & New Media  16(4): 346-353. Abstract: ‘The growing importance of images in the age of television has created the conditions for Narendra Modi to evolve his nondiscursive populist mode of political communication as Chief Minister of Gujarat. Beyond television, he has relied on techniques like mobile vans carrying TV sets and 3D holograms shown in many different locations simultaneously. In this type of high-tech populism, the dress codes and the body language have mattered lot, and hence Modi’s obsession with details, including the colors to wear and the length of his kurta’s sleeves. If Indira Gandhi’s brand of populism relied mostly on the radio, Narendra Modi, who has short circuited his party in the same proportion, belongs to the television era. But he has not used this medium only to promote his image’.


Media Regulation and Control

Guo, ZZ. (2003) “Playing the Game by the Rules? Television Regulation around China’s Entry into WTO’, Javnost-The Public 10(4): 5-18.

Mason, R. & Martinson, J. (2014) ‘George Osborne’s BBC attack branded “seriously unacceptable”’, The Guardian, 5 December 2014, 

Schreck, C. (2014) ‘Ekho Moskvy Plans Social Media Rules for Journalists, Sparking Outcry’, Radio Free Europe, 24 November 2014.


Image, Control, PR and Spin

Crace, J. (2014) ‘Edinburgh shoppers flee campaigners and the media Milimob’, The Guardian, 16 September 2014.

Hooper, J. (2014) ‘From BBC to right hand of Pope: Patten to advise Vatican on media strategy’, The Guardian, 9 July 2014.

Larson, A. O. (2015) ‘Birds of a feather flock together? Party leaders on Twitter during the 2013 Norwegian elections’ European Journal of Communication, 30(6): 666-681.

Willsher, K. (2014) ‘Magazine promises to remove claims of François Hollande affair from website’, The Guardian, 10 January 2014,


Gender, Media and Politics

Adcock, C. (2010) ‘The politician, the wife, the citizen and her newspaper: Rethinking women, democracy and media(ted) representation’, Feminist Media Studies 10(2): 135-160. 

Banwart, M.C., Bystrom, D.G. & Robertson, T. (2003) ‘From the primary to the general election: A comparative analysis of candidate media coverage in mixed-gender 2000 races for governor and US senate’, American Behavioral Scientist 46(5): 658-676.

Braden, M. (1996) Women, Politicians and the Media. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press.

Gidengil, E. & Everitt, J. (2005) ‘Conventional coverage/unconventional politicians: Gender and media coverage of Canadian leaders’ debates 1993, 1997, 2000’, Canadian Journal of Political Science 36(3): 559-577.

Kahn, K.F. (1994) ‘The distorted mirror: Press coverage of women candidates for statewide office’, Journal of Politics 54: 154-173.

Lünenborg, M. & Maier, T. (2015) ‘“Power Politician” or “Fighting Bureaucrat”: gender and power in German political coverage’, Media, Culture & Society  37(2): 180-196.

Ross, K. (2002) Women, Politics, Media: Uneasy Relations in Comparative Perspective. Hampton Press.



For further reading on journalism in a global perspective, Silvio Waisbord’s book (details below)  is a good place to start. The article by Carpentier and Trioen provides a good overview and problematization of the concept of objectivity, and ideas about what sort of material can be used to study it.

Aamidor, A. et al. (2013) Media Smackdown: Deconstructing the News and the Future of Journalism. New York and London: Peter Lang.

Carpentier, N. & Trioen, M. (2010) ‘The particularity of objectivity: A post-structuralist and psychoanalytical reading of the gap between objectivity-as-a-value and objectivity-as-a-practice’ in the 2003 Iraqi War coverage’, Journalism 11(3): 311-328.

Esser, F. & Umbricht, A. (2014) ‘The Evolution of Objective and Interpretive Journalism in the Western Press: Comparing Six News Systems since the 1960s’, Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 91(2): 229-249.

Waisbord, S. (2013) Reinventing Professionalism. Journalism and news in global perspective. Cambridge: Polity.

Zelizer, B., ed. (2009) The Changing Faces of Journalism: Tabloidization, Technology and Truthliness. Routledge.


Global Journalism and Foreign Correspondents

Berglez, P. (2008) ‘What is global journalism? Theoretical and empirical conceptualisations’, Journalism studies  9(6): 845-858.

Hamilton, J.M. & Jenner, E. (2004) ‘Redefining foreign correspondence’, Journalism 5(3): 301-321.

Xin, X. (2009) ‘Xinhua News Agency in Africa’, Journal of African Media Studies 1(3): 363-77.


Global and Other Crisis Reporting

Cottle, S. & Nolan, D. (2007) ‘Global humanitarianism and the changing aid field: “Everyone was dying for footage”’, Journalism Studies 8(6): 862-878.

Franks, S. (2013) Reporting Disaster: Famine, Aid, Politics and the Media. London: Hurst & Company.

Joris, W., d’Haenens, L. & Gorp, B. (2014) ‘The euro crisis in metaphors and frames. Focus on the press in the Low Countries’, European Journal of Communication 29(5): 608-617.

Kyriakidou, M. (2008) ‘Visualizing climate change: television news and ecological citizenship’, International Journal of Communication 3: 920-936.

Lester, L. & Hutchines, B. eds. (2013) Environmental Conflict and the Media. New York: Peter Lang.

Philo, G., Briant, E. & Donald, P. (2013) Bad News for Refugees. London: Pluto.

Rafter, K. (2014) ‘Voices in the crisis: the role of media elites in interpreting Ireland’s banking collapse’, European Journal of Communication 29(5).

Vincze, H.O. (2014) ‘“The Crisis” as a journalistic frame in Romanian news media’, European Journal of Communication 29(5).


Journalism, Media Representation and Cultural Diversity

Engelbert, J. & Awad, I. (2014) ‘Securitizing cultural diversity: Dutch public broadcasting in post-multicultural and de-pillarized times’, Global Media and Communication 10: 261-274, DOI 10.1177/1742766514552352.

Graf, H. ed. (2010) Diversity in Theory and Practice. News Journalists in Sweden and Germany. Gothenburg: Nordicom.

Özcan, E. (2015) ‘Women’s headscarves in news photographs: A comparison between the secular and Islamic press during the AKP government in Turkey’, European Journal of Communication 30(6): 698-713.

Journalists and Technological Change

Ekdale, B. et al. (2015) ‘Making Change: Diffusion of Technological, Relational, and Cultural Innovation in the Newsroom’, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 92(4): 938-958.


Publics and Audiences

Coleman, S. & Blumler, J.G. (2009) The Internet and Democratic Citizenship. Theory, Practice and Policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Dahlgren, P. (2009) Media and Political Engagement: Citizens, Communication and Democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kumar, N. (2014) ‘Facebook for self-empowerment? A study of Facebook adoption in urban India’, New Media & Society 16(7): 1122-1137. This article explores the notion of new media literacy in the world’s largest democracy. Kumar argues that a growing participatory culture and internet-enabled mobile phones are contributing to the self-empowerment of the less privileged - at least less privileged young men.

Laverne, L. (2014) ‘Born before 1985? Then you’re a “digital immigrant’, The Guardian, 16 November 2014.

See also the special issue of the International Communication Gazette: ‘Audiences in the face of distant suffering’, November 2015, Vol. 77, No. 7.



Classic studies, the impact of digital media, transnational protest, visual aspects of protest, performativity, media & the Arab uprisings, other works



Classic studies of media coverage of demonstrations:

Gitlin, T. (1980/2003) The Whole World is Watching. Mass Media and the Making and Unmaking of the New Left. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Murdock, G. (1981) ‘Political Deviance: the press presentation of a militant mass demonstration’, in J. Young & S. Cohen, eds. The Manufacture of News - Deviance, Social Problems and the Mass Media. London: Constable.


Things to read on how digital media have impacted on activism:

Bennett, Lance & Alexandra Segerberg (2012) ‘The Logic of Connective Action’, Information, Communication & Society 15(5): 739-768.

Bennett, L. (2003) ‘New Media Power: the internet and global activism’, in N. Couldry and J. Curran, eds., Contesting Media Power: Alternative Media in a Networked World. Oxford: Rowan and Littlefield, pp. 17-38.

Berenger, Ralph D., ed. (2013) Social Media Go to War: Rage, Rebellion and Revolition in the Age of Twitter. Spokane: Marquette Books.

Boler, M. et al. (2015) ‘Connective labor and social media: Women’s roles in the “leaderless” Occupy movement’, Convergence 20(4).

Cammaerts, B. (2012) ‘Protest Logics and the Mediation Opportunity Structure’, European Journal of Communication 27(2): 117-34.

Castells, M. (2012) Networks of Outrage and Hope: Social Movements in the Internet Age. Cambridge: Polity.

Christensen, C. (2011) ‘Twitter Revolutions? Addressing Social Media and Dissent’, The Communication Review 14: 155-157.

Creech, B. (2015) ‘Digital representation and Occupy Wall Street’s challenge to political subjectivity’, Convergence 20(4).

Dahlberg, L. & Siapera, E. (2007) Radical Democracy and the Internet. Palgrave.

Donk, Wim B.H.J. van de, et al. eds. (2004) Cyberprotest: New Media, Citizens and Social Movements. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Gillan, K., Pickerill, J. & Webster, F. (2011) Anti-War Activism. New Media and Protest in the Information Age. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.

Gladwell, Malcolm (2010) ‘Small change. Why the revolution will not be tweeted’, New Yorker, October 4, accessed 22 November 2014.

Hänska-Ahy, M. & Shapour, R. (2013) ‘Who’s reporting the protests? Converging practices of citizen journalists and two BBC World Service newsrooms, from Iran’s election protests to the Arab uprisings’, Journalism Studies  14(1): 29-45.

Milan, S. (2013) Social Movements and their Technologies. Houndmills: Palgrave.

Pickerell, J. & Webster, F. (2006) ‘The Anti-War/Peace Movement in Britain and the Conditions of Information War’, International Relations 20(4): 407-423.

Postill, J. (2015) ‘Freedom technologists and the new protest movements: A theory of protest formulas’, Convergence 20(4).

Roberts, J.M. (2014) New Media and Public Activism. Bristol: Policy Press.

Rojecki, A. (2002) ‘Modernism, State Sovereignty and Dissent: Media and the New Post-Cold War Movements’, Critical Studies in Media and Communication 19(2): 152-171.


Works on the transnational nature of contemporary protest:

Cottle, S. (2011) ‘Transnational Protests and the Media: new departures, challenging debates’, in S. Cottle & L. Lester, eds. Transnational Protests and the Media. New York & London: Peter Lang, pp. 17-38.

Crouch, D. & Damjanov, K. (2011) ‘Piracy Up-linked: Sea Shepherd and the Spectacle of Protest on the High Seas’, in S. Cottle & L. Lester, eds. Transnational Protests and the Media. New York & London: Peter Lang, pp. 185-196.

Fominaya, C. F. (2014) Social Movements and Globalization. How protests, occupations and uprisings are changing the world. Houndmills: Palgave Macmillan.

Murray, C., et al. (2011) ‘“Not in Our Name”: British press, the anti-war movement and Iraq crisis 2002-2009’, in S. Cottle & L. Lester, eds. Transnational Protests and the Media. New York & London: Peter Lang, pp. 59-73.

Rojecki, A. (2011) ‘Leaderless Crowds, Self-Organizing Publics and Virtual Masses: the new media politics of dissent’, in S. Cottle & L. Lester, eds. Transnational Protests and the Media. New York & London: Peter Lang, pp.87-97.


Studies that highlight the visual aspects of mediated protest include:

DeLuca, K.M. & Peeples, J. (2002) ‘From Public Sphere to Public Screen: Democracy, Activism and the “Violence” of Seattle’, Critical Studies in Media Communication 19(2): 125-151.

Lester, L. (2010) Media and Environment. Cambridge: Polity, chapter 5.


Studies of how performativity and cultural dramaturgy can influence movement aims and outcomes:

Alexander, J. (2011) Performative Revolution in Egypt: An Essay on Cultural Power. Bloomsbury Academic.

McAdam, D. (2000) ‘Movement Strategy and Dramaturgic Framing in Democratic States: the case of the American Civil Rights Movement’, in S. Chambers & A. Costain, eds., Deliberation, Democracy and the Media. Oxford: Rowan and Littlefield.


Studies of the media and the Arab Uprisings

Aday, Sean, Farrell, Henry, Lynch, Marc, Sides, John and Deen Freelon (2012) New Media and Conflict after the Arab Spring. Washington: United States Institute of Peace.

Alexander, Anne and Miriyam Aouragh (2014) ‘Egypt’s Unfinished Revolution: The Role of the Media Revisited’, International Journal of Communication 8: 890-915.

Allagui, Ilhem and Johanne  Kuebler (2011) ‘The Arab Spring and the Role of ICTs.’, International Journal of Communication 5: 1435-1442.

Andén-Papadopoulos, K. (2014) ‘Citizen Camera-Witnessing. Crisis testimony in the age of ‘mediated mass self-communication’”, New Media and Society, May 1, pp.117-133

Andén-Papadopoulos, K. (2013) ‘Re-imagining crisis reporting: Professional ideology of journalists and citizen eyewitness images’, Journalism - Theory, Practice & Criticism, 14 (7):960-977.

Andén-Papadopoulos, K. (2013) ‘The Media Work of Syrian Diaspora Activists: Brokering Between the Protest and Mainstream Media’, International Journal of Communication 7: 2185-2206.

Aouragh, Miriyam (2012) ‘Framing the Internet in the Arab Revolutions: Myth Meets Modernity’, Cinema Journal 52 (1), pp. 148-156.

Aouragh, M. & Alexander, A. (2011) ‘The Egyptian Experience: Sense and Nonsense of the Internet Revolution’, International Journal of Communication 5:

Axford, B. (2011) ‘Talk About a Revolution: Social Media and the MENA Uprisings’, Globalizations 8(5): 681-686.

Bady, Aaron (2012) ‘Spectators to Revolution: Western Audiences and the Arab Spring’s Rhetorical Consistency’, Cinema Journal  52(1): 137-142.

Comunello, F. & Anzera, G. (2012) ‘Will the revolution be tweeted? A conceptual framework for understanding the social media and the Arab Spring’, Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 23(4): 453-470.

Eltantawy, Nahed & West, J.B. (2011) ‘Social Media in the Egyptian Revolution: Reconsidering Resource Mobilization Theory’, International Journal of Communication  5: 1207-1224.

Ghannam, Jeffrey (2011) Social Media in the Arab World: Leading up to the Uprisings of 2011. A report to the Center for International Media Assistance. Washington: Center for International Media Assistance.

Hamdy, Naila & Gomaa, Ehab H. (2012) ‘Framing the Egyptian Uprising in Arabic Language Newspapers and Social Media’, Journal of Communication 62: 195-211.

Hermida, A. et al. (2014) ‘Sourcing the Arab Spring: A Case Study of Andy Carvin’s Sources on Twitter During the Tunisian and Egyptian Revolutions’, Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 19: 479-499.

Howard, Philip N. (2010) The Digital Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy: information technology and political Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Howard, Philip N. & Hussain, M. (2013) Democracy’s Fourth Wave? Digital Media and the Arab Spring. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Howard, Philip N. & Hussain, M. (2011)  ‘The Role of Digital Media’, Journal of Democracy  22(3): 35-48.

Karagiannopoulos, V. (2012) ‘The Role of the Internet in Political Struggles: Some Conclusions from Iran and Egypt’, New Political Science 34(2): 151-171.

Khondker, Habibul H. (2011) ‘Role of the New Media in the Arab Spring’, Globalizations 8(5): 675-679.

Lim, Merlyna (2012) “Clicks, Cabs, and Coffee Houses: Social Media and Oppositional Movements in Egypt, 2004-2011.” Journal of Communication 62: 231-248.

Lotan, Gilad, et al. (2011) ‘The Revolutions Were Tweeted: Information Flows During the 2011 Tunisian and Egyptian Revolutions’, International Journal of Communications 5:1375-1405.

Niekerk, Brett Van et al. 2011. “Analyzing the Role of ICTs in the Tunisian and Egyptian Unrest from an Information Warfare Perspective.” International Journal of Communication 5: 1406-1416.

Osman, Wazhmah (2014) ‘On Media, Social Movements, and Uprising: Lessons from Afghanistan, Its Neighbors, and Beyond’, Signs 39 (4): 874-887.

Papacharissi, Zizi & Maria de Fatima Oliveira (2012) ‘The Rhythms of News Storytelling on Twitter: Coverage of the January 25th Egyptian uprising on Twitter’, Journal of Communication 62(2).

Rane, H. & Salem, S. (2012) ‘Social media, social movements and the diffusion of ideas in the Arab uprisings’, The Journal of International Communication 18(1): 97-111.

Ray, T. (2014) ‘The “story” of digital excess in revolutions of the Arab Spring’, Journal of Media Practice 12(2): 189-196.

Rinke, Eike M. & Röder, M. (2011) ‘Media Ecologies, Communication Culture, and Temporal-Spatial Unfolding: Three Components in a Communication Model of the Egyptian Regime Change’, International Journal of Communication 5: 1273-1285.

Robertson, Alexa (2015) ‘What’s Going On? Making Sense of the Role of the Media in the Arab Uprisings’. Sociology Compass 1–11, 10.1111/soc4.12278

Robertson, A. (2013) ‘Connecting in crisis: “old” and “new” media and the Arab Spring’, International Journal of Press/Politics 18: 325-341.

Robertson, A. (2012) ‘Narratives of Resistance: Comparing Global News Coverage of the Arab Spring’, New Global Studies 6(2), Article 3.

Russell, A. (2011) ‘Extra-National Information Flows, Social media and the 2011 Egyptian Uprising’, International Journal of Communication 5: 1238-1247.

Skinner, J. (2011) ‘Social Media and Revolution: The Arab Spring and the Occupy Movement as Seen through Three Information Studies Paradigms’, Sprouts: Working Papers on Information Systems 11(169),

Starbird, K. & Palen, L. (2012) ‘(How) Will the Revolution be Retweeted? Information Diffusion and the 2011 Egyptian Uprising’, Social Media and War in Crisis, CSCW’12, Seattle.

Tufekci, Z. & Wilson, C. (2012) ‘Social Media and the Decision to Participate in Political Protest: Observations from Tahrir Square’, Journal of Communication 62: 363-379.

Wagner, B. (2011) “‘I Have Understood You”: The Co-Evolution of Expression and Control on the Internet, Television and Mobile Phones During the Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia’, International Journal of Communication 5: 1295-1302.

Wolfsfeld, Gadi et al. (2013) ‘Social Media and the Arab Spring: Politics Comes First’, The International Journal of Press/Politics 18(2): 115-137.

Other works on media and protest:

Clifford, B. (2005) The Marketing of Rebellion: Insurgents, Media and International Activism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Gamson, William A. and Gadi Wolfsfeld (1993) ‘Movements and media as interacting systems’, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 526: 114-127.

Lee, F.L. & Chan, J.M. (2011) Media, Social Mobilization, and Mass Protests in Post-Colonial Hong Kong. The power of a critical event. London: Routledge.

Reestorff, C. M. (2015) ‘Mediatised affective activism: The activist imaginary and the topless body in the Femen movement’, Convergence 20(4).

Scalmer, S. (2002) Dissent Events: Protest, the Media and the Political Gimmick in Australia. Kensington: University of New South Wales Press.

Yew-Jin, F. (1994) ‘“Riots” and Demonstrations in the Chinese Press: a case study of language and ideology’, Discourse and Society 5(4): 463-481.

See also papers presented at social media panels at the European Consortium of Political Research conference in Rekyavik in 2011, such as thought-provoking texts by Cammaerts, DeLuca & Peeples, Bennett & Segerberg, Morozov, and Bimber.


Media and War

Griffin, M. (2010) ‘Media images of war’, Media, War & Conflict 3(1): 7-41. This article contains a useful review of iconomic moments in media-military-politics relations in times of war.

Hoskins, A. & O’Loughlin, B. (2010) War and Media. The Emergence of Diffused War. Cambridge Polity. A chapter in this book is devoted to methods: it is a good place to start if you are interested in pursuing this topic further. 

Sheets, P., Rowlilng, C.M. & Jones, T.M. (2015) ‘The view from above (and below): A comparison of American, British and Arab news coverage of US drones’, Media, War & Conflict 8(3): 1-23. Abstract: ‘In recent years, the United States has significantly expanded its use of drone warfare. Experts are divided: some defend drones as a legal, effective way to target terrorists while others suggest drones are inaccurate and contribute to anti-Americanism. In addition, international public opinion differs starkly with Americans largely supportive of the program while publics across the globe condemn it. Suspecting news coverage might play a pivotal role in these differences, the authors explored the framing of the US drone program in American, British, and Arab news coverage. Consistent with research on social identity theory and ethnocentrism in news, they find that US coverage was more likely to frame the policy favorably – emphasizing its legality, strategic value and technological sophistication while downplaying civilian deaths – while British and, to a greater extent, Arab coverage was more critical. The authors discuss how these findings build on existing theory and explore the implications for US drone policy.’

Wade, W. P. (2015) ‘The “living room war” in the escalation period: Romance, irony, and the narrative ambivalence of tragedy in Vietnam War era photojournalism’, Media, War & Conflict 8(3).

See also the March 2014 special issue of Index on Censorship (Vol 43, Issue 1), devoted to the use of propaganda in war. This and other publications (be they scholarly texts or media reports) that take the 2014-18 centenary of World War One to look back on a hundred years of warfare, provide rich sources of material to write about.


Surveillance, Security Forces and the Media


Brevini, B. et al. (2013) Beyond WikiLeaks. Implications for the Future of Communications, Journalism and Society. Palgrave.

Christensen, C., ed. (2014) Wikileaks: from popular culture to political economy. International Journal of Communication, Volume 8,

Jones, O. (2014) ‘The CIA’s cute first tweet can’t cover its bloody tracks’, The Guardian, 8 June 2014.



Infotainment - Politics and Popular Culture

Begin with Roland Barthes (Mythologies, Vintage, 1957/1993). It’s fun, it’s a key text, and it’s available on several online sites if you google. A classic, and very pedagogical, anthology edited by Stuart Hall is also a good introduction to issues of representation that are both political, and grounded in the field of cultural studies. Deanna Sellnow’s methods text on analysing popular culture in terms of its rhetorial power is a reader-friendly introduction to the different theories that guide the different analytical approaches to the study of popular culture - not least its political aspects - with examples of student essays that use each approach. As for more specific topics, the following titles may give you some ideas. Plunder these authors’ reference lists while you’re at it.

Barthes, R. (1957/1993) Mythologies. London: Vintage.

Hall, S. (2007) Representation. Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. London: Sage.

Sellnow, D. (2014) The Rhetorical Power of Popular Culture. Considering Mediated Texts. Sage.


Reality TV


Graham, T. & Hajru, A. (2011) ‘Reality TV as a trigger of everyday political talk in the net-based public sphere’, European Journal of Communication 26(1): 18-32.



Political Satire


Jones, J.P. & Baym, G. (2010) ‘A Dialogue on Satire News and the Crisis of Truth in Postmodern Political Television’, Journal of Communication Inquiry 34(3): 278-294.

Kuipers, G. (2011) ‘The politics of hunour in the public sphere: Cartoons, power and modernity in the first transnational hunour scandal’, European Journal of Cultural Studies 14(1): 63-80.

Punathambekar, A. (2015) ‘Satire, Elections, and Democratic Politics in Digital India’, Television & New Media 16(4): 394-400.

See also the special issue of Popular Communication, devoted to political satire around the world (volume 10, 1-2).



Political Drama

Castelló, E. (2009) ‘The Nation as a Political Stage. The Theoretical Appraoch to Television Fiction and National Identities’, The International Communication Gazette 71(4): 303-320.

Hasian, M. Jr. (2013) ‘Zero Dark Thirty and the Critical Challenges Posed by Populist Postfeminism during the Global War on Terrorism’, Journal of Communication Inquiry 37(4): 322-343. Hasian offers a feminist critique of the movie. While the film’s producers have marketed the film ‘as a liberating cinematic representation that shows how a dedicated woman led to the manhunt for Osama bin Laden’, the author ‘argues that htis is more of a populist, postfeminist representation that advances militarist causes’.

Narine, N. (2010) ‘Global Trauma and Narrative Cinema’, Theory, Culture & Society 27(4): 119-145.

Sachleben, M. & Yenerall, K.M. (2012) Seeing the Bigger Picture. American and International Politics in Film and Popular Culture. New York: Peter Lang. 

Shapiro, M. (2009) Cinematic Geopolitics. London: Routledge.

Wodak, R. (2010) ‘The glocalization of politics in television: Fiction or reality?’, European Journal of Cultural Studies 13(1): 43-62; 

Van Zoonen, L. (2005) Entertaining the Citizen. When Politics and Popular Culture Converge. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield.



Street, J. (2012) Music & Politics. Cambridge: Polity.

Celebrities, Media Spectacle, Charitainment


Nash, K. (2008) ‘Global citizenship as show business: the cultural politics of Make Poverty History’, Media, Culture & Society 30(29: 167-181



Science Fiction/Fantasy and Politics


Hassler, D.M. & Wilcox, C. eds (2008) New Boundaries in Political Science Fiction. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press

Nexon, D. & Neumann, I.B. (2006) Harry Potter and International Relations. Lanham: Rowman & Littlefield

Weldes, J. (2003)  To Seek Out New Worlds. Exploring Links between Science Fiction and World Politics. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.



If you are interested in the scholarly views of those who use the word mediatization, have a look at:

Kriesi, H., Lavenex, S., Esser, F., Matthes, J., Bühlmann, M. & Bochsler, D., Democracy in the Age of Globalization and Mediatization. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan

Lundby, K. ed. (2009) Mediatization. Concept, changes, consequences. New York & London: Peter Lang. Lundby is also the editor of a 738-page volume published in 2014, Mediatization of Communication (De Gruyter Mouton).


Media Freedom

John Steel’s 2012 book (details below) is a good place to start if you want to read and think more about this topic. Another title to note is the book published the same year by Erin Coyle. A book that takes its point of departure in the call for more regulation is the McBride and Rosenstiel 2013 anthology.  Writing in the Guardian, Suzanne Moore reflects on how ‘anti-social media’ technologies lead to people behaving badly, without being held to account, and includes a number of thoughts that might be useful when structuring an essay.

Coyle, E. (2012) The Press and Rights to Privacy: The First Amendment Freedoms vs Invasion of Privacy Claims. El Paso: LFB Scholarly Publishing.

McBridge, K. & Rosenstiel, T., eds. (2013) The New Ethics of Journalism: Principles for the 21st Century. London: Sage.

Moore, S. (2014) ‘Does free speech give us the right to anonymously troll strangers?’, The Guardian, 6 October 2014. 

Steel, J. (2012) Journalism and Free Speech. Routledge.